Who is considered a valued part of the community, and who is considered expendable? Answering these questions requires examining the hate frame.
Hate violence is symbolic: It declares the superiority of one group of people over another. Those targeted are symbolically presented as psychically or physically disposable; the violence is a ritual of degradation.
Hate violence is society’s visible eruption of long-standing practices of injustice that are expressed in a multitude of ordinary ways. Transformative change can only occur by first understanding how hate violence is inextricably bound to broader social and political systems.